What is the industrial revolution 4.0

Speaking of the industrial revolution, and most of you must have learn about the industrial revolution in England, right? In school we studied about the industrial revolution from the first revolution to the fourth. Usually in the subject of History often discuss this. Well, maybe some of you are confused , so why the title is the industrial revolution 4.0. How abut first, second, and third revolution?

This term is actually trending right now. Lately a lot of people talk about the industrial revolution 4.0. Not only national figures, international figures repeatedly discussed about “Prepare to welcome industry 4.0” or “We must not be crushed by industry 4.0” or “We must be able to exploit the phenomenon of Industry 4.0.” So, actually industrial revolution 4.0. What is that? In this article, we will describe the industrial revolution, starting from the first to the fourth. Because of it, let’s look at the article!

Industrial Revolution

industrial revolution
the industrial revolution had a very significant impact

First, we first look at the definition of the industrial revolution itself. The industrial revolution simply means a huge and radical change in the way humans produce goods. This great change has been recorded three times, and now we are undergoing the fourth industrial revolution. Every major change is always followed by major changes in the economic, political, even military and cultural. Certainly millions of old jobs have disappeared, and millions of new jobs have emerged.

We have to look in more detail in every industrial revolution, but the rough thing is, some things that were so difficult, so long, so expensive in the process of sudden production are easy, fast, and cheap. So remember, economics is talking about various kinds of human efforts to deal with scarcity. Because the industrial revolution reduces, sometimes even ELIMINATES some of these scarcities, so that the time, energy, and money that were originally used to overcome these shortages suddenly become free, so they can be used for other things, to overcome the scarcity of others.

The loss or reduction of a scarcity automatically changes many aspects of social life. Especially if it turns out some rarity disappeared! but, we see through the discussion on the revolution that most closely approaches the industrial revolution 4, namely the industrial revolution 3.

Industrial Revolution 3.0

The advanced technology of using robots come in industrial revolution 3.0
The advanced technology of using robots come in industrial revolution 3.0

After replacing muscle power with steam, then parallel production with serial, what other changes can occur in the industrial world? The next factor that is replaced is the human being. After the second industrial revolution, humans still play a very important role in the production of goods, as already mentioned, this is the industrial era!

Computer Era

The third industrial revolution changed it. After this revolution, the industrial age slowly ended, the information age began. If the first revolution is triggered by a steam engine, the second revolution is triggered by a conveyor belt and electricity, the third revolution is triggered by a moving machine, which thinks automatically: computers and robots.

The computer was originally a luxury item. One of the first computers developed in World War 2 as a machine to break the code made in Nazi Germany, the first programmable computer called the Colossus was a giant machine as big as a bedroom. Do not have RAM, and can not take orders from humans through the keyboard, especially the touchscreen, but through paper tape. This ancient computer also needed enormous electricity: 8500 watts! But its ability is not as simple as the smartphone in the pockets of most Indonesians today.

Technology Make Very Smaller Upgrade

However, technology progress for the extraordinary computer shot after the second world war finished. The discovery of semiconductors, followed by transistors, then integrated chips (ICs) made the computer size smaller, the electricity needed less, while the ability to count flew to the sky.

Reducing the size of the computer becomes important, because now the computer can be installed on the machines that operate the production line. Now, computers replace many people as operators and controllers of production lines, just as telephone operators in telephone companies are replaced by relays so that we just have to call phone numbers to contact our friends.

This process is called “Automation”, everything is automatic, no need for humans anymore. That is, once again there is a decrease in the scarcity of human resources, freeing thousands of workers for other jobs.

Along with the progress of the computer, the progress of machines that can be controlled by the computer also increased. All kinds of machines are created with forms and functions that resemble the form and function of humans. The computer becomes his brain, the robot becomes his hand, slowly the function of manual labor and manual labor disappear.

However, this does not mean that human tasks in production can be completely replaced by robots. Car manufacturers originally thought the 3.0 industrial revolution would be like 2.0, where parallel production was totally replaced by production lines, robots would be totally replaced by humans.

Replacements Caused By Technology

Car factories in the 1990s tried to replace all their employees with robots, the result being that productivity declined. E Musk tried to do it again in the 2010’s at the Tesla car factory. Once again, everyone discovered the fact that for the production of cars, the combination of humans and robots-computers was the best. The emergence of robots and computers is a human helper, not a successor.

Once again, this revolution changed society. Developed countries like the United States and Western European countries tend to change from relying on the manufacturing sector, to relying on the service sector such as banks, film studios, IT, etc. as their economic motor. They changed from an industrial economy to an information economy.

Because of this progress too, there was a change from analog data to digital data. For example, from recording music using cassettes to using CDs, from watching movies on video players to using DVD players; etc. This happens because the computer can only work with digital data.

Because this is the third industrial revolution, another name is “Digital revolution”. Because of this revolution too, video games have become something normal in our lives, becoming a business with billions of value, even trillions of dollars. In other words on the negative side, digitalization, computerization made new crimes emerge: computer fraud.

OK, after installing computers and robots in the production process, what is the progress? What other progress can be found in the industry?

Industrial Revolution 4.0

Artificial Intelligence
Form of Industrial revolution 4.0 is AI

The concept of “Industry 4.0″ was first used in public at the Hannover Messe industrial exhibition in the city of Hannover, Germany in 2011. From this event also the idea of ​​”Industry 2.0” and “Industry 3.0” has just emerged, previously only known as the “Technological Revolution” “And” Digital Revolution “. Well, you might be able to guess, after those two revolutions, what kind of revolution could happen again?

Notice that all revolutions occur using the previous revolution as a basis. Industry 2.0 will not emerge as long as we still rely on muscle, wind, and water for production. Industry 3.0 essentially upgrades production lines with computers and robots. So, industry 4.0 also definitely uses computers and robots as its basis. So, what progress has emerged in our computer world lately?

Great Things From Network

First, the most noticeable progress is the internet. All computers are connected to a shared network. Computers are also getting smaller so that it can be as big as our fist, so we have a smartphone. Not only are we connected to the giant network, we are ALWAYS connected to the giant network.

This is the first part of the fourth industrial revolution: “Internet of Things” when the computers in the factory are connected to the internet, when every problem in the production line can be immediately known WHEN IT is ALSO by the factory owner, wherever the owner is!

Secondly, technology progress also created 1001 new sensors, and 1001 ways to utilize information obtained from these sensors that records everything 24 hours a day. This information even concerns the performance of its human employees. For example, now the company can track the movements of all and every employee while in the factory. From this movement, it can be seen, for example, that these employees spend too much time in one section, so that the part needs to be improved.

Big Data

There are still 1001 other information that can be obtained from 1001 different data, so there are still 1001-1001 ways to increase factory productivity which was previously unthinkable. Because there is so much variety and the amount of new data, this aspect is often called Big Data.

Third, related to the first and second, is Cloud Computing. Complex calculations still require large sophisticated computers, but because they are connected to the internet, because there is a lot of data that can be sent via the internet, all of these calculations can be done elsewhere, not at the factory. So, a company that has 5 factories in 5 different countries only needs to buy a super computer to process the data needed simultaneously for the five factories. No need to buy 5 supercomputers to do this separately.

Learning Machine

Fourth, this is actually the biggest one: Machine learning, which is a machine that has the ability to learn, which can realize that it has made a mistake so that it makes correct corrections to improve subsequent results. This can be illustrated by the story “AlphaZero AI”. Before Machine Learning, a computer did its job by being “Instructed” or “Instructed” by humans.

Combining these four things means that calculations that are complex, extraordinary, and unthinkable about anything can be done by a super computer with capabilities beyond the limits of human ability. In fact, of course, now it’s not that cool. The fourth point, namely AI and Machine Learning, is still very limited for certain tasks.

Not only Indonesia, developed countries like Japan, Germany, and the United States are still debating the consequences of this fourth industrial revolution, because this revolution is STILL taking place, or even just BEGIN. In other words there are still many challenges. Internet connection, for example, is not universal.

There are still some areas that don’t have internet connection, even in the United States. In addition, an internet connection means the emergence of new security holes. A rival company is definitely trying to snoop on the performance and design of production through the computer security of production controls that can now be accessed from the internet. See also : Love with Robots

Resume

Staging of Industrial Revolution
Staging of Industrial Revolution

Very rapid progress forces us to consciously or not to follow the path where this technology runs, if it does not follow the rhythm that is running then we can be sure we will lose hold. This 4.0 Revolution is almost universally carried out where all regions have used up to date civilizations. Indeed there are only a few parts of the region that are still unreachable with technology, but they can be counted on the fingers and are progressing to include technology in them.

Rise of AI

So what happens if a region with slow technological development does not immediately follow? Certainly will be an increasingly underdeveloped area. There are so many conveniences that we can get with the existence of technology. Speed, convenience, extremely easy access and so on. What we get, we can upgrade again to a better one.

Recently the development of AI has begun to be worked on seriously so that many of the developed countries have started to make various AI prototypes. Did you know that the use of non-human resources that have been trained and properly systemized will be more efficient in their use. In other words We will greatly suppress the number of incidents that may occur, maybe even we can zero it! Furthermore, we do not need to doubt the discipline of a machine, they are never licensed, or even negligent. They only stop when something doesn’t work well on their system. It means that there is nothing like the discipline of a machine, right?

Skill vs System

With very long and long experience, maybe a bank teller can count large bills very quickly. It’s just one person and it’s very difficult to make someone like that, except for having to forge it for years. However with the system and also robotics, if you have found the logic we can even duplicate the skill and can apply it to many machines in a very short time. No need to wait for years of experience. So, next year we can leave it to develop more advanced technology in the direction.

When talking with AI, we will be even more amazed, where we can improve the skills of our machines without the need to teach us. However they will adopt this knowledge from the outside world and from the lessons they can learn. They are very easy to adjust and adopt what they have learned so far. Therefore add that information to their processor lines and also do a personal analysis which then adds a new line of information to their system is their automatically jobs. Like a student in grade 1 elementary school, without having to teach us in just one month he can jump into a grade 6 student. That fast! Imagine how efficient an AI is.

Constrain

Technology VS Human
Constrain technology vs human

In conclusion, behind the sophistication of a technology there are still other problems that are difficult to solve for this universal development itself. However that is related to the norm and the heart still cannot be used fully for a machine. The machine will only process something that has been given and taught to him. But there are times when we face a case that requires consideration and also the use of human instincts. The machine is still unable to use it, so the machine is still called very rigid to deal with whatever the rationale is to use feelings like those of humans. Although therefore has been tried with various advanced systems, but the human consideration system is still very difficult to sample and apply to the machine.

Source: https://garudacitizen.com/seo/

To stop a tech apocalypse we need ethics and the arts

Sara James, La Trobe University and Sarah Midford, La Trobe University

If recent television shows are anything to go by, we’re a little concerned about the consequences of technological development. Dystopian narratives abound.

Black Mirror projects the negative consequences of social media, while artificial intelligence turns rogue in The 100 and Better Than Us. The potential extinction of the human race is up for grabs in Travellers, and Altered Carbon frets over the separation of human consciousness from the body. And Humans and Westworld see trouble ahead for human-android relations.

Narratives like these have a long lineage. Science fiction has been articulating our hopes and fears about technological disruption at least since Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818).

However, as the likes of driverless cars and robot therapists emerge, some previously fictional concerns are no longer imaginative speculation. Instead, they represent real and urgent problems.


What kind of future do we want?

Last year, Australia’s Chief Scientist Alan Finkel suggested that we in Australia should become “human custodians”. This would mean being leaders in technological development, ethics, and human rights.

Finkel isn’t alone in his concern. But it won’t be simple to address these issues in the development of new technology.

Many people in government, industry and universities now argue that including perspectives from the humanities and social sciences will be a key factor.

A recent report from the Australian Council of Learned Academies (ACOLA) brought together experts from scientific and technical fields as well as the humanities, arts and social sciences to examine key issues arising from artificial intelligence.

According to the chair of the ACOLA board, Hugh Bradlow, the report aims to ensure that “the well-being of society” is placed “at the centre of any development.”

Human-centred AI

A similar vision drives Stanford University’s Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence. The institute brings together researchers from the humanities, education, law, medicine, business and STEM to study and develop “human-centred” AI technologies. The idea underpinning their work is that “AI should be collaborative, augmentative and enhancing to human productivity and quality of life”.

Meanwhile, across the Atlantic, the Future of Humanity Institute at the University of Oxford similarly investigates “big-picture questions” to ensure “a long and flourishing future for humanity”.

The centre is set to double in size in the next year thanks to a £13.3 million (A$25 million) contribution from the Open Philanthropy Project. The founder of the institute, philosopher Nick Bostrom, said:

There is a long-distance race on between humanity’s technological capability, which is like a stallion galloping across the fields, and humanity’s wisdom, which is more like a foal on unsteady legs.


What to build and why

The IT sector is also wrestling with the ethical issues raised by rapid technological advancement. Microsoft’s Brad Smith and Harry Shum wrote in their 2018 book The Future Computed that one of their “most important conclusions” was that the humanities and social sciences have a crucial role to play in confronting the challenges raised by AI:

Languages, art, history, economics, ethics, philosophy, psychology and human development courses can teach critical, philosophical and ethics-based skills that will be instrumental in the development and management of AI solutions.

Hiring practices in tech companies are already shifting. In a TED talk on “Why tech needs the humanities”, Eric Berridge – chief executive of the IBM-owned tech consulting firm Bluewolf – explains why his company increasingly hires humanities graduates.

While the sciences teach us how to build things, it’s the humanities that teach us what to build and why to build them.

Only 100 of Bluewolf’s 1,000 employees have degrees in computer science and engineering. Even the Chief Technology Officer is an English major.

Tech CEO Eric Berridge explains why his company hires humanities graduates.

Education for a brighter future

Similarly, Matt Reaney, the chief executive and founder of Big Cloud – a recruitment company that specialises in data science, machine learning and AI employment – has argued that technology needs more people with humanities training.

[The humanities] give context to the world we operate in day to day. Critical thinking skills, deeper understanding of the world around us, philosophy, ethics, communication, and creativity offer different approaches to problems posed by technology.

Reaney proposes a “more blended approach” to higher education, offering degrees that combine the arts and STEM.

Another advocate of the interdisciplinary approach is Joseph Aoun, President of Northeastern University in Boston. He has argued that in the age of AI, higher education should be focusing on what he calls “humanics”, equipping graduates with three key literacies: technological literacy, data literacy and human literacy.

The time has come to answer the call for humanities graduates capable of crossing over into the world of technology so that our human future can be as bright as possible.

Without training in ethics, human rights and social justice, the people who develop the technologies that will shape our future could make poor decisions. And that future might turn out to be one of the calamities we have already seen on screen.

Sara James, Senior Lecturer, Sociology, La Trobe University and Sarah Midford, Senior Lecturer, Classics and Ancient History and Director of Teaching and Learning (ugrad), School of Humanities and Social Sciences, La Trobe University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.